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1.       TUDOREL ANDREI, ERIKA TUŞA, CLAUDIU HERŢELIU- The Perception of Gender Discrimination at the Level of Young Educated Romanians – A Quantitative Approach, 2006


Gender discrimination is a reality affecting an important part of the socio-economic life. The study aims to examine, by using quantitative techniques, the main tendencies in the Romanian society regarding gender discrimination, as perceived by the young, educated population. In order to meet the objectives of the study, a cluster sampling was performed among the Romanian students. The results from the statistical sampling were compared to national data from several studies made by national and international organizations. In the final part of the study, the findings of sampling research are validated by a logic model. The model is presenting the main factors that are generating gender discrimination, as well as the most important variables throughout which discrimination is perceived in Romania.


Beyond the conceptual approach, the sex based discrimination in different aspects and global context is real. If we take the example present in the United Nations Statistics, two illiterates out three in less developed countries are woman. Moreover, the violence against woman is global reality, one of three girls and woman being sexually abused during their life.

In Romania, law 202/ 2002 is providing rules in the gender equality field. The law has provisions against discrimination, no matter the activity sector and form in with it is done: employment, education, access to information, participation to the decision making process, access to culture, etc.

The law is defining the sexual discrimination and makes the difference between the sexual discrimination and sexual harassment. The discriminated woman is that one that is less considered than other, directly - based on sex, pregnancy, etc, or indirectly – when the treatment is addressed to a group.

Despite the fact that the law was set up in 2002, no one sexual discrimination was reported justice until now, even a Gender Barometer reported 6% persons who did experience this kind of discrimination. The report may conclude that, there is a lack of action of the affected woman as consequence of lack of education and information regarding the possibilities they have to defend themselves against this kind of discrimination.

Utilising quantitative and qualitative tools, the survay is traying to identify opinions and trends in the Romanian society regarding e gender based discrimination, quality of communication between different groups, perception of the main causes that generate discrimination, as well as the elements that make the diferece among different perceptions regarding the discrimination based on sex.

The pilot survey was conducted in Bucharest ASE (Academia de studii Economice)  in order to collect information related to elements like religion, revenues, and  other social characteristics that may influence different beliefs and behaviours.  This academic  education institution was choosen for the pilot survey due to its large number of students ( 50 thousend) and its tradition as well, and it is intended to extend the survay to all universities in Romania  in the near future.

Youngsters’ relative perception regarding the gender discrimination and context :

The national level – a comparative survay

Three kind of discrimination are registered in Romania and it is not new that these discriminations may be found in various sectors (education, politics, economic activities, etc) and contexts – from statements of important political leaders to  other people attitudes. The survay is underlaying the youngsters perception regarding the gender discrimination in Romania.

According to this survey, almost 85% of the student girls  and more that 56% of the student boys sed that the gender based discrimination is existing in our country. The main cause of it is represented by stereotipes regarding the differences between man and woman (78% of the student girls and 49% of the student boys). The next causes are the respondents’ opinion according to which woman spent too much time with the domestic activities (17% of the student girls and 12% of the student boys), and the assumption that woman and man cannot be equal due to natural reasons (12% of the student boys and 7% of the student girls) .

In the mentime, 9% of the student girls sed that woman is not enough concerned on the professional creer.

50% of the respondents aggreed that, in general, man is a  better political lieder. Regarding the man and woman ability to lead businesses, opinions are equally divided. Two out of three respondents disagreed the statement according to which wifes that has a payd job and wifes that has not a payd job may be equaly satisfied.


Perception regarding gender equalty in some activity areas:


- According to the respondents opinion, woman is disadvantaged, maily in the political field (87.6% stated that man is advantaged, instead only 1.5% stated that woman is advantaged), and the business sector 71.3% stated that man is advantaged, instead only 2.8% stated that woman has a small advantage, and 22.3% stated that man and woman have equal opportunities).

- Regarding the access to culture, most of the respondents (both, man and woman) sed that both (male and female) have equal chances (61,7% from the respondents); moreover, 22,6% of the respondents against 8,4%, have the opinion that woman have symmetrical opportunities.

- Regarding employment: the opinions are relatively simmetrical; more that 50% of respondents have the opinion that they have equal chances. Among those respondents that believe that woman have less chances to  get employed, girls are mostly thinking that man is advantaged. Boys are mostly thinking that woman is advantaged.

- Onother perception of the students is that in society, in general, man and woman have equal chances.

The survey among students in ASE, shows us a need for major changes in the popilical  and business life where woman is net disadvantaged.

Regarding the political environment, the young students perception is defined by the following two examples:

First of all, at the top level of the politics – the Parliament. Only 3,73% of the young parliament members are males. We can see that the average number of woman in the two chambers of the Romanian Parliament increased (four times during the last twoo Parliament elections), but this figure is due to the very small number of women elected at the previous elections. Nevertheless, the trend is positive.

Second, regarding the county councillors, figures are not too much different. The highest number of woman county councillors is registered in the Sibilu county (around 27%). The counties located in North – West of Romania are registering the smallest purcentages of woman councillors (around 3% in Salaj and Caras Severin). In counties located in North – East of Romania, the situation is better.

The entreprenorial behaviour seems to be not disconected from the gender issue. In the top 50 of the woman in all sectors published by  Capital (business) Magazine in 2004, only 25 woman have their own business . The other 25 woman are employed in media, arts and politics.  5 out of the 25 woman entrepreneurs havea  husband that isa  known businessman.